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P-hacking References

P-HACKING, WHEN AND WHY DID IT ALL START?

  1. Why the Father of Modern Statistics Didn’t Believe Smoking Caused Cancer. (n.d.). Retrieved January 12, 2020, from https://priceonomics.com/why-the-father-of-modern-statistics-didnt-believe/
  2. Shafer, G. (n.d.). On the nineteenth-century origins of significance testing and p-hacking. Retrieved December 4, 2019, from http://www.probabilityandfinance.com
  3. Not Even Scientists Can Easily Explain P-values | FiveThirtyEight. (n.d.). Retrieved December  3, 2019, from https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/not-even-scientists-can-easily-explain-p-values/

WHAT IS A DATA SCIENTIST?

  1. F I N D I N G S. (n.d.). Data Science report 2018, Retrieved February 2, 2020, from  https://visit.figure-eight.com/rs/416-ZBE-142/images/Data-Scientist-Report.pdf
  2. 12 things I wish I’d known before starting as a Data Scientist. (n.d.). Retrieved March 4, 2020, from https://medium.com/deliberate-data-science/12-things-i-wish-id-known-before-starting-as-a-data-scientist-45989be6300e
  3. 4 Types of Data Science Jobs | Udacity. (n.d.). Retrieved November 29, 2019, from https://blog.udacity.com/2018/01/4-types-data-science-jobs.html
  4. What is Data Science? (n.d.). Retrieved January 11, 2020, from https://datascience.berkeley.edu/about/what-is-data-science/
  5. What is the brutal truth about data scientists? – Quora. (n.d.). Retrieved March 22, 2020, from https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-brutal-truth-about-data-scientists
  6. Håkon Hapnes Strand – Quora. (n.d.). Retrieved March 22, 2020, from https://www.quora.com/profile/Håkon-Hapnes-Strand
  7. Data Scientist: The Sexiest Job of the 21st Century. (n.d.). Retrieved March 22, from https://hbr.org/2012/10/data-scientist-the-sexiest-job-of-the-21st-century
  8. Figure Eight DATA SCIENTIST REPORT 2018. (n.d.). Retrieved March 23, 2020, from https://datascience.berkeley.edu/about/what-is-data-science/

PRACTICAL P-VALUES

  1. Felix Schönbrodt’s blog. (n.d.). Retrieved January 23, 2020, from https://www.nicebread.de/introducing-p-hacker/
  2. Science Isn’t Broken | FiveThirtyEight. (n.d.). Retrieved January 23, 2020, from https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/science-isnt-broken/
  3. Trafimow, D., & Marks, M. (2015). Editorial. In Basic and Applied Social Psychology (Vol. 37, Issue 1, pp. 1–2). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.1080/01973533.2015.1012991
  4. Fanelli, D. (2013). Why Growing Retractions Are (Mostly) a Good Sign. PLoS Medicine10(12), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001563
  5. Building Normal Distribution Charts Using Highcharts | benmccormick.org. (n.d.). Retrieved January 28, 2020, from https://benmccormick.org/2017/05/11/building-normal-curves-highcharts/
  6. JavaScript – Chi-Square Distribution Function. (n.d.). Retrieved January 23, 2020, from https://www.math.ucla.edu/~tom/distributions/chisq.html
  7. Chi-Squared demo. (n.d.). Retrieved January 28, 2020, from https://codepen.io/pg2020/pen/zYxgZvK
  8. What is a p-value? – YouTube. (n.d.). Retrieved January 23, 2020, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9jW9G8MO4PQ&feature=emb_logo

P-HACKING WITH TALEB

  1. Elliott, G., Kudrin, N., & Wüthrich, K. (2019). Detecting p-hacking *.
  2. Nassim Nicholas Taleb’s articles on arXiv. (n.d.). Retrieved February 2, 2020, from https://arxiv.org/a/taleb_n_1.html
  3. The Fat Tails Statistical Project. (n.d.). Retrieved February 2, 2020, from https://www.fooledbyrandomness.com/FatTails.html
  4. Nassim Nicholas Taleb Home & Professional Page. (n.d.). Retrieved February 2, 2020, from https://www.fooledbyrandomness.com/
  5. Monte Carlo Simulation: Definition, Example, Code. (n.d.). Retrieved February 2, 2020, from https://blog.quantinsti.com/monte-carlo-simulation/
  6. Law of large numbers – Wikipedia. (n.d.). Retrieved February 3, 2020, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Law_of_large_numbers
  7. (PDF) Fooled by Correlation: Common Misinterpretations in Social “Science” | Nassim Nicholas Taleb – Academia.edu. (n.d.). Retrieved February 4, 2020, from https://www.academia.edu/39797871/Fooled_by_Correlation_Common_Misinterpretations_in_Social_Science_
  8. The probability distribution of p values – YouTube. (n.d.). Retrieved February 4, 2020, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8qrfSh07rT0&feature=emb_logo
  9. (PDF) Tail Risk of Contagious Diseases | Nassim Nicholas Taleb – Academia.edu. (n.d.). Retrieved April 1, 2020, from https://www.academia.edu/42307438/Tail_Risk_of_Contagious_Diseases
  10. Norman, J., Bar-Yam, Y., & Taleb, N. (n.d.). Systemic Risk of Pandemic via Novel Pathogens-Coronavirus: A Note.
  11. The Black Swan Report › REPLICATION CRISIS, Gabish, Monsanto, Donaldo, Saudi Barbaria, slaves, Nudge, trees, waiters | Twitter. (n.d.). Retrieved February 2, 2020, from https://www.blackswanreport.com/blog/2018/08/replication-crisis-gabish-monsanto-donaldo-saudi-barbaria-slaves-nudge-trees-waiters-twitter/
  12. (PDF) Fooled by Correlation: Common Misinterpretations in Social “Science” | Nassim Nicholas Taleb – Academia.edu. (n.d.). Retrieved February 5, 2020, from https://www.academia.edu/39797871/Fooled_by_Correlation_Common_Misinterpretations_in_Social_Science_
  13. Taleb, N. N. (n.d.). A Short Note on P-Value Hacking.
  14. (No Title). (n.d.). Retrieved February 2, 2020, from https://arxiv.org/pdf/1603.07532.pdf
  15. Nassim Nicholas Taleb – Wikipedia. (n.d.). Retrieved April 3, 2020, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nassim_Nicholas_Taleb

SOLUTIONS TO P-HACKING

  1. List of publishers – scholarlyoa.com. (n.d.). Retrieved February 26, 2020, from https://scholarlyoa.com/publishers/
  2. Goodhart’s law – Wikipedia. (n.d.). Retrieved  February 26, 2020, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goodhart%27s_law
  3. Retraction Watch – Tracking retractions as a window into the scientific process. (n.d.). Retrieved  February 26, 2020, from https://retractionwatch.com/
  4. Scientists are finding more genes linked to IQ. This doesn’t mean we can predict intelligence. – Vox. (n.d.). Retrieved  February 26, 2020, from https://www.vox.com/science-and-health/2017/6/6/15739590/genome-wide-studies
  5. Benjamin, D. J., Berger, J. O., Johannesson, M., Nosek, B. A., Wagenmakers, E., Berk, R., Bollen, K. A., Brembs, B., Brown, L., Camerer, C., Cesarini, D., Chambers, C. D., Clyde, M., Cook, T. D., De Boeck, P., Dienes, Z., Dreber, A., Easwaran, K., Efferson, C., … Johnson, V. E. (n.d.). Title: Redefine Statistical Significance.
  6. (No Title). (n.d.). Retrieved  February 26, 2020, from https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/dtingley/files/sig-naturehumanbehaviour.pdf
  7. Scientists rise up against statistical significance. (n.d.). Retrieved April 1, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-00857-9
  8. Simmons, J. P., Nelson, L. D., & Simonsohn, U. (2011). False-positive psychology: Undisclosed flexibility in data collection and analysis allows presenting anything as significant. Psychological Science22(11), 1359–1366. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797611417632
  9. Science Isn’t Broken | FiveThirtyEight. (n.d.). Retrieved January 7, 2020, from https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/science-isnt-broken/
  10. Maths and tech specialists need Hippocratic oath, says academic | Science | The Guardian. (n.d.). Retrieved  February 27, 2020, from https://www.theguardian.com/science/2019/aug/16/mathematicians-need-doctor-style-hippocratic-oath-says-academic-hannah-fry
  11. What a nerdy debate about p-values shows about science — and how to fix it – Vox. (n.d.). Retrieved  February 24, 2020, from https://www.vox.com/science-and-health/2017/7/31/16021654/p-values-statistical-significance-redefine-0005
  12. Head, M. L., Holman, L., Lanfear, R., Kahn, A. T., & Jennions, M. D. (2015). The Extent and Consequences of P-Hacking in Science. PLOS Biology13(3), e1002106. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002106
  13. Moss, J., & De Bin, R. (2020). MODELLING PUBLICATION BIAS AND p-HACKING A PREPRINT.

THE P-VALUE MISINTERPRETATION

  1. Choosing the Correct Statistical Test in SAS, Stata, SPSS and R. (n.d.). Retrieved March 4, 2020, from https://stats.idre.ucla.edu/other/mult-pkg/whatstat/
  2. Statistical Association, A. (2016). AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION RELEASES STATEMENT ON STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE AND P-VALUEShttps://doi.org/10.1080/00031305.2016.1154108#.Vt2XIOaE2MN
  3. (No Title). (n.d.). Retrieved March 4, 2020, from http://www.stat.columbia.edu/~gelman/research/unpublished/p_hacking.pdf
  4. We’re All “P-Hacking” Now | WIRED. (n.d.). Retrieved March 5, 2020, from https://www.wired.com/story/were-all-p-hacking-now/
  5. Notes on Statistics Done Wrong – Party at the Moontower. (n.d.). Retrieved April 3, 2020, from https://moontowermeta.com/notes-on-statistics-done-wrong/
  6. Science Isn’t Broken | FiveThirtyEight. (n.d.). Retrieved March 5, 2020, from https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/science-isnt-broken/#part4
  7. The Power of Bayesian A/B Testing — Dynamic Yield. (n.d.). Retrieved March 5, 2020, from https://www.dynamicyield.com/blog/bayesian-testing/

CLOSING THOUGHTS

NN Taleb (2016) The Bed of Procrustes: Philosophical and Practical Aphorisms. NY, USA: Random House

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